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Thursday, March 22, 2012

How Far Could A Human Swim?

Theoretically, how far could an open water swimmer continue in one non-stop ultra marathon swimming effort?

There are dozens of people who have swum non-stop for more than 24 hours, others who have swum more than 40 hours, but only a handful who have swum more than 60 hours, and only a precious few who have swum more than 80 hours.

Straight. Non-stop. No sleep. No getting out.

Practically, swimmers like Susie Maroney and Diana Nyad have come close to finding out with their swims in the Caribbean Sea. Kevin Murphy has been in the cold, rough English Channel for 52 hours ... and regretted coming out. The longest distance and time an adequately trained marathon swimmer could swim is based on a number of factors:

1. Water Temperature
2. Sleep Deprivation
3. Watr Salinity
4. Third Spacing
5. Swimmer's Speed and Pacing
6. Swimmer's Personality
7. Turbulence
8. Marine Life
9. Equipment
10. Nutrition
11. Body fat index
12. Conditioning
13. Elevation of Residence
14. Age of the swimmer
15. Gender
16. Support crew
17. Luck

1. Water Temperature
Water temperature is important because the water temperature, ideally, would be at least 28°C (82.4°F). It may be too warm in the first two days, but the warmer waters held in days 3, 4 and on. However, when the water temperature is in this range, it usually means that the air temperature is at least this warm. This amount of warmth can be a detriment to the swimmer in the middle of the day, but quite welcomed at night.

2. Sleep Deprivation
Sleep deprivation is more of a safety issue in the water than it is for endurance athletes on land. On land, you can wobble and crash if you fall asleep or even move in a bit of a slumber, but in the open water, this is not possible. Once the swimmer's vision becomes narrower and things appear dark or tunnel-focused, they are entering a danger zone. Additionally, in warm water, a swimmer would tend to get sleepier faster than in cooler water, another limiting factor.

3. Water Salinity
The salinity of the water is a major factor because the skin's pores and orifices (especially in and around the mouth) become severely irritated. It affects some swimmers more than others, but it does affect everyone over 24 hours in the water and, severely, for those who are in the water over 48 hours.

4. Third Spacing
There is also the factor of Third Spacing where your body naturally expands after being submerged for lengthy periods of time which will affect your physiological performance over time. It affects some swimmers more than others, but it does affect everyone over 24 hours in the water and, severely, for those who are in the water over 48 hours especially when the water is warm.

5. Swimmer's Speed and Pacing
The speed of the swimmer is less of a factor unless tides and currents are an issue. Most importantly in order to maximum time in the water (and therefore distance), an individual with an efficient swimming stroke has a significant advantage over others. But most importantly, is the athlete who is able to pace themselves physically and psychologically well.

6. Swimmer's Personality
Swimmers who do marathon swims are a special breed who can mentally remove themselves from the task at hand. Because their vision and hearing is impaired due to their position in the water, a steely type of personality is required.

7. Turbulence
Calm water is ideal, but rough water is bearable if the turbulence is with the swimmer. Rough water conditions work not only on the swimmer, but is also a living hell for the crew, especially when the swimmer is in the water over 48 hours.

8. Marine Life
Marine life must be a consideration. To maximum time in the water, swimmers will definitely want to avoid jellyfish, sharks, Portuguese Man o War, sea nettles, sea snakes or the like.

9. Equipment
Use of a wetsuit, hand paddles and fins would obviously be easier than swimming under the traditional rules of the sport, but wetsuit swims are an entirely different discipline when maximization of time and distance are the goals. Equipment also includes illumination that is required for night swimming.

10. Nutrition
Most ultra distance swimmers eat well enough during their swim. Athletes can choose scientifically formulated foods (e.g., gel packs) or normal food (e.g., bread, fruits, chocolate). While mega-marathon swims can be limited by not eating or hydrating enough, proper nutrition is essential to performing well in the 50+ hour range. But when swimmers are in the water for extended periods, especially salt water, their taste buds are shot and nothing tastes like it does on land.

11. Body Fat Index
Ultra-endurance athletes of any discipline usually have a higher body fat percentages than elite marathon athletes (runners or swimmers). Body fat insulates the body, is more buoyant than muscle and enables the body to last longer in the open water. While some endurance athletes lose significant weight in their marathon efforts, carefully monitored marathon swimmers lose less weight during a swim because they refuel and hydrate often. Because the water temperature of even the warmest oceans is more than 10°F (l2°C) lower than the normal core body temperature, body fat percentage is helpful in the world of ultra-marathon swimming.

12. Conditioning
It is inevitable that the athlete is very well-prepared physiologically to complete an ultra-marathon swim. Training for a 2+ day swim takes serious training. At the elite level, the athlete's mental outlook is so strong that their body generally gives up before their mind does. This is why seriously committed marathon swimmers - if allowed to by their support crew - are fished out of the water; their mindset allows them to reach their physical limits.

13. Elevation of Residence
Living at high altitude may help; however, it is also true that the higher an athlete lives, the less likely they are to have access to good year-round open water training venues. Training exclusively in a pool at high altitude is not optimal for an ultra-marathon swim.

14. Age of Swimmer
Maturity is most definitely a necessity for ultra-marathon swimmers. While there are always exceptions (Lynne Cox, Susie Maroney and Nick Adams were doing ultra marathon swims at precocious ages), maturity usually comes with age and life experiences. It is much ore likely that the better ultra-marathon swimmers will be over the age of 25 than not.

15. Gender
Many marathon swimming world records are held by men (e.g., Philip Rush, Petar Stoychev, Abo-Heif, Kevin Murphy). But many women have also been successful in ultra-marathon swimming (e.g., Vicki Keith, Yuko Matsuzaki, Penny Palfrey). Many scientists state that the female gender are better physiologically at marathon distances although neither gender has a lock at the most extreme ends.

16. Support Crew
A successful ultra-marathon swimmer will have a well-prepared, patient, knowledgeable support crew with a high navigational IQ and an intimate understanding of the swimmer. The best escort pilots and teams can get an athlete across an ocean or a lake or down a river much better, safer and faster than an inexperienced crew. The positioning of an athlete relative to the boat and currents, the date of the swim (taking into account full moons and tidal flows), knowledge of the swimmer's abilities and training, and a deep well of knowledge of the body of water are absolutely critical to success.

17. Luck
Luck cannot be overstated in the dynamic environment of the open water. Every open water swimmer needs luck when swimming over 24 hours non-stop in an ocean, lake or river. Large bodies of water rarely remain the same during mega-marathon swims because the elements can change so radically. If luck is on the athlete's side, then the conditions are conducive to a truly long marathon swim. If the conditions deteriorate during the swim, then the chances of doing the ultimate ultra-marathon swim are significantly reduced or, in most cases, prematurely eliminated.

We estimate the outer limits of swimming non-stop in the open water without sleep is 80-100 hours and would best be done swimming/floating downstream in a warm-water river that starts in the highlands (not the mountains) and flows out to the ocean in a non-industrial area. Ideally this fresh-water river would be wide enough where rapids are not an issue (and therefore rocks) and in a location where boat traffic was minimal. Salt water locations would be more challenging, but the tidal flow may be more conducive to a longer swim in the ocean. There are several rivers in the temperate regions of Africa that fit this bill, although several people have swum very long distances down the Mississippi, Hudson, Parana, Danube rivers over the past 150 years.

Copyright © 2012 by Open Water Source


  1. Great question.. really. How far can the human body go?
    What was the length of Penny Palfreys Carribean swim? Over 24 hours but not 60?
    There is a quote I like*
    "we are capable of more than we can believe"


Thank you very much for your interest in the world of open water swimming.

The Staff of the World Open Water Swimming Association

2014 Global Open Water Swimming Conference

Learn more...
Courtesy of WOWSA, Huntington Beach, California.

2014 Global Open Water Swimming Conference Agenda

Friday, 19 September



Welcome Reception at Mount Stuart House, Isle of Bute, Scotland

Documentary films shown throughout the reception:

Blue Journey-Amerika Samoa – Stronger Together: The Waterman’s Way
(film by Bruckner Chase)

Dancing With The Water, Crossing of Lake Pontchartrain
(film by Wayne Ewing about Matthew Moseley's Lake Pontchartrain crossing)

Bering Strait Swim Chukotka - Alaska
(film by Admiral Konstantin Sidenko about the relay between Russia and Alaska)

The Clean Swim – Hong Kong to Macau
(film about Simon Holiday's Pearl River Delta crossing)

Saturday, 20 September



Registration and Coffee at Mount Stuart House, Isle of Bute, Scotland



Keynote Speech:
Colleen Blair (Scotland) on The History of Scottish Swimming



Christopher Guesdon (Australia) on Multidimensional Roles In The Sport



Colin Hill (England) on Recent Explosion in UK Open Water



Shelley Taylor-Smith (Australia) on The Feminine Code of Achievement - How a Lady from Down Under Revolutionized Professional Marathon Swimming



Simon Murie (England) on Open Water Swimming Holidays: How A New Sector Was Created Within The Travel Industry



Swimming The Oceans Seven
A round table discussion moderated by:
Kevin Murphy (England), with Stephen Redmond (Ireland), Anna-Carin Nordin (Sweden),
Darren Miller (USA), Adam Walker (England), Kimberley Chambers (New Zealand)



Coffee and Break



World Open Water Swimming Awards Luncheon:
with co-hosts Shelley Taylor-Smith (Australia) and Steven Munatones (USA)

Pádraig Mallon (Ireland), 2013 World Open Water Swimming Man of the Year

Olga Kozydub (Russia), 2013 World Open Water Swimming Woman of the Year

Bering Strait Swim, 2013 World Open Water Swimming Performance of the Year

Honoring: Vladimir Chegorin, Maria Chizhova, Elena Guseva, Ram Barkai, Jack Bright, Oksana Veklich, Aleksandr Jakovlevs, Matías Ola, Henri Kaarma, Toomas Haggi, Nuala Moore, Anne Marie Ward, Toks Viviers, Melissa O’Reilly, Ryan Stramrood, Cristian Vergara, Craig Lenning, Rafal Ziobro, Andrew Chin, Jackie Cobell, James Pittar, Paolo Chiarino, Mariia Yrjö-Koskinen, Ivan Papulshenko, Zdenek Tlamicha, Zhou Hanming, Oleg Adamov, Andrei Agarkov, Alekseev Semen, Tatiana Alexandrova, Roman Belan, Elena Semenova, Alexander Brylin, Afanasii Diackovskii, Vladimir Nefatov, Evgenii Dokuchaev, Oleg Docuckaev, Roman Efimov, Dmitrii Filitovich, Olga Filitovich, Victor Godlevskiy, Olga Golubeva, Alexei Golubkin, Alexander Golubkin, Alexandr Iurkov, Oleg Ivanov, Pavel Kabakov, Eduard Khodakovskiy, Aleksandr Komarov, Aleksandr Kuliapin, Andrey Kuzmin, Irina Lamkina, Vladimir Litvinov, Andrey Mikhalev, Victor Moskvin, Nikolay Petshak, Sergey Popov, Vladimir Poshivailov, Grigorii Prokopchuk, Dmitrii Zalka, Natalia Seraya, Viacheslav Shaposhnikov, Olga Sokolova, Andrei Sychev, Alexei Tabakov, and Nataliia Usachaeva [represented by Admiral Konstantin Sidenko and Nuala Moore]



Alexey Salmin Pavlovich (Russia) and Dmitry Dragozhilov (Russia)
on the 2016 Winter Swimming World Championships [film]



Sally Minty-Gravett (Jersey) on Motivating Swimmers



Dmitry Blokhin (Russia) and Aleksei Veller (Russia)
on the First World Ice Swimming Championships [film]



Matthew Moseley (USA)’s Dancing With The Water, Crossing of Lake Pontchartrain [film]



Simon Holliday (England) and Doug Woodring (Hong Kong)’s The Clean Swim – Hong Kong to Macau 2014 [film]



International Swimming Hall of Fame (ISHOF)
and International Marathon Swimming Hall of Fame (IMSHOF)

IMSHOF Induction Ceremonies and Dinner
with co-hosts Shelley Taylor-Smith (Australia) and Steven Munatones (USA).

Recognition of International Swimming Hall of Fame honorees:

  • Elizabeth Fry (USA), IMSHOF Honour Swimmer

  • Vojislav Mijić (Serbia), IMSHOF Honour Swimmer

  • James Anderson (USA), IMSHOF Honour Administrator

  • Dr. Jane Katz (USA), IMSHOF Honour Administrator

  • Indonesian Swimming Federation Open Water Committee (Indonesia), IMSHOF Honour Organisation

  • Melissa Cunningham (Australia), Irving Davids – Captain Roger Wheeler Award by the International Swimming Hall of Fame and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer

  • Sandra Bucha (USA), ISHOF Honor Open Water Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer

  • Jon Erikson (USA), ISHOF Honor Open Water Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer [represented by Sandra Bucha]



International Swimming Hall of Fame (ISHOF) Introduction Video.
Welcome speech by host Shelley Taylor-Smith (Australia)






International Swimming Hall of Fame (ISHOF)
Induction Ceremonies and Dinner with host Shelley Taylor-Smith (Australia)

Recognition of International Swimming Hall of Fame honorees:

  • Mercedes Gleitze (England)
    ISHOF Honor Pioneer Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer
    [represented by daughter Doloranda Pember]

  • Dale Petranech (USA)
    ISHOF Honor Contributer and IMSHOF Honour Administrator

  • Claudio Plit (Argentina)
    ISHOF Honor Open Water Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer
    [represented by Shelley Taylor-Smith]

  • Judith van Berkel-de Nijs (Netherlands)
    ISHOF Honor Open Water Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer
    [represented by Niek Kloots]

  • George Young (Canada)
    ISHOF Honor Pioneer Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer
    [represented by the Catalina Channel Swimming Federation]

  • David Yudovin (USA)
    ISHOF Honor Open Water Swimmer and IMSHOF Honour Swimmer

Sunday, 21 September



Registration and coffee at Mount Stuart House, Isle of Bute, Scotland



Nuala Moore (Ireland) on The Mindset of 1000m at 0ºC



Admiral Konstantin Sidenko (Russia)’s Bering Strait Swim Chukotka - Alaska in 2013 [film]



Ned Denison (Ireland) on Swimming The World



Bruckner Chase (USA)’s Blue Journey-Amerika Samoa
Stronger Together: The Waterman’s Way



Rok Kerin (Slovenia) on Lifestyle Benefits From Open Water Swimming



Survey distribution and group photo-taking



Swim at Stravvana Bay, Isle of Bute


The Global Open Water Swimming Conference is a conference on the sport of open water swimming, marathon swimming and swimming during triathlons and multi-sport endurance events.

The conference which has been attended by enthusiasts and luminaries from 6 continents, is devoted to providing information about the latest trends, race tactics, training techniques, equipment, psychological preparation, race organization and safety practices used in the sports of open water swimming, marathon swimming and triathlons.

The conference's mission is to provide opportunities to listen and meet many of the world's most foremost experts in open water swimming, and to meet and discuss the sport among swimmers, coaches, administrators, event organizers, sponsors, vendors, officials, escort pilots, and volunteers from kayakers to safety personnel.

Dozens of presentations at the 2014 Conference at the Mount Stuart House cover numerous aspects of the vast and growing world of open water swimming where attendees can learn and share the latest trends, race tactics, training modalities, swimming techniques, equipment, race organization, logistics, operations, and safety practices for open water swimming as a solo swimmer, competitive athlete, fitness swimmer, masters swimmer, triathlete, multi-sport athlete, administrator, race promoter, sponsor or referee.

The conference was first held in Long Beach, California as part of the 2010 USA Swimming National Open Water Swimming Championships. It has since been held on the Queen Mary in California, at Columbia University and the United Nations in New York City, and in Cork, Ireland. This year in September, it comes to another iconic location, the Mount Stuart House on the Isle of Bute in Scotland.

"The Global Open Water Swimming Conference was started due to the desire and need for athletes, coaches, referees, administrators, race directors, promoters and sponsors from around the world to share, collect and learn information about the growing sports of open water swimming, marathon swimming and triathlons," said founder Steven Munatones. "Other swimming conferences usually offering nothing on open water swimming or perhaps a speech or two, but we thought open water swimming deserves its own global conference. It is great that the community shares its information via the online social network, but there is nothing like meeting other open water swimming enthusiasts face-to-face and talking about the sport from morning to night."

Speakers at the conference include English Channel swimmers, ice swimmers, record holders, renowned coaches, world champions, professional marathon swimmers, renowned race directors, officials and administrators from the Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania.

"Because the audience is passionate and educated about the sport and its finest practitioners, the Global Open Water Swimming Conference is also the location of the induction ceremonies for the International Marathon Swimming Hall of Fame and the annual WOWSA Awards that recognize the World Open Water Swimming Man of the Year, the World Open Water Swimming Woman of the Year, the World Open Water Swimming Performance of the Year, and the World Open Water Swimming Offering of the Year. Special Lifetime Achievement Awards are also occasionally presented to individuals who have made significant contributions to the sport over their career."

Copyright © 2014 by World Open Water Swimming Association

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Open Water Swimming Magazine

Open Water Swimming Magazine

The Open Water Swimming Magazine is the monthly magazine entirely focused on open water swimming heroes and heroines of every age, ability, and background. Published by the World Open Water Swimming Association, the Open Water Swimming Magazine is a free benefit to WOWSA members.

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The Other Shore

The Other Shore follows world record holder and legendary swimmer Diana Nyad as she comes out of a thirty-year retirement to re-attempt an elusive dream: swimming 103 miles non-stop from Cuba to Florida without the use of a shark cage. Her past and present collide in her obsession with a feat that nobody has ever accomplished. At the edge of The Devil’s Triangle, tropical storms, sharks, venomous jellyfish, and one of the strongest ocean currents in the world, all prove to be life-threatening realities. Timothy Wheeler’s documentary brings Diana Nyad’s extraordinary adventure to life as Diana sets out to prove that will and determination are all you need to make the unimaginable possible.

2014 Open Water Swimming Almanac

An Almanac for Open Water Swimming

An almanac is essentially a body of knowledge which is so complete that it enables people in different fields to make predictions about the future of their respective industries.

This, for example, was the purpose of the traditional farmers almanacs. It enabled farmers to determine as accurately as possible which crops to plant for the greatest harvests in a given year.

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